7 Binary Options – Signals

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

what is this i just downloaded (youtube code?)

so this is kinda a wierd story. I was planning to restart my computer. (cant remember why) I spend most of my time watching youtube videos so i had alot of tabs open. So i was watching the videos then deleting the tab but not opening new tabs. So i was down 2 i think 1 it was a pretty long video so i tried to open a youtube home page tab just to look while i listened to the video. And this is a short exerp of what i got.





YouTube











submitted by inhuman7773 to techsupport [link] [comments]

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In the OSI reference model, what is above the network layer is_______ 。

The decision tree corresponding to binary search is not only a binary search tree, but also an ideal balanced binary tree. In order to guide the interconnection, interoperability and interoperability of computer networks, ISO has issued the OSI reference model, and its basic structure is divided into
26_______ It belongs to the information system operation document.

In C ? language, the following operators have the highest priority___ ?
the full Chinese name of BPR is ()
please read the following procedures: dmain() {int a = 5, B = 0, C = 0; if (a = B + C) printf (\ * * \ n \); else printf (\ $$n \);} the above programs
() software is not a common tool for web page making.

When a sends a message to B, in order to achieve security, a needs to encrypt the message with ().

The Linux exchange partition is used to save the visited web page files.

  1. Materials consumed by the basic workshop may be included in the () cost item.

The coverage of LAN is larger than that of Wan.

Regarding the IEEE754 standard of real number storage, the wrong description is______

Task 4: convert decimal number to binary, octal and hexadecimal number [Topic 1] (1134.84375) 10 = () 2=()8 = () 16
the purpose of image data compression is to ()
in IE browser, to view the frequently visited sites that have been saved, you need to click.

  1. When several companies jointly write a document, the document number of each company should be quoted in the header at the same time. ()
    assuming that the highest frequency of analog signal is 10MHz, and the sampling frequency must be greater than (), then the sample signal can not be distorted.

The incredible performing artist from Toronto.
in access, the relationship between a table and a database is.

In word 2010, the following statement about the initial drop is correct.

Interrupt service sub function does not need to be called in the program, but after applying for interrupt, the CPU automatically finds the corresponding program according to the interrupt number.

Normal view mode is the default view mode for word documents.

A common variable is defined as follows: Union data {int a; int b; float C;} data; how much memory space does the variable data occupy in VC6.0?

______ It is not a relational database management system.

In the basic model of decision support system, what is in the core position is:
among the following key factors of software outsourcing projects, () is the factor that affects the final product quality and production efficiency of software outsourcing.

Word Chinese textThe shortcut for copying is ().
submitted by Amanda2020-jumi to u/Amanda2020-jumi [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v3.0 - Buster Busts Loose!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi-RGB v3.0

A CRTPi image for running 240p via GPIO RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.0 for 888 & 666 05/12/2020 - Emergency Fixes
Changelog: v3.0 for 888 & 666 05/08/2020
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 7c5e31bb commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • 4GB (3872256 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 982256 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system and game-by-game
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with custom runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What about your new Per-Game Configs and Snap-Shader?
The RGB and VGA forks are now utilizing Snap-Shader, plus a newly-enhanced runcommand-onstart script, with provision for user-specified per-game configuration!
Here's the new script:
https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/blob/masteRGB-to_opt/retropie/configs/all/runcommand-onstart.sh 
Here's information about Snap-Shader:
https://github.com/ektgit/snap-shader-240p 
And here's a quick rundown on how it works:
Not only does the new script carry forward the per-core scripting for 2048x / 1920x / and 1600x resolutions -- but adds per-game scripting by adding a text file to the system config and naming the rom(s) within the file. This allows you to force 2048x on a system that defaults to 1920x. This is especially useful for PSX, FDS, PCE/PCE-CD, and MAME for the few games that are 256 or 512 wide. Below are some example config files:
/opt/retropie/conifgs/psx/256.txt
Brave Prove Castlevania - Symphony of the Night Crash Bandicoot Final Fantasy Origins Final Fantasy Tactics 
/opt/retropie/conifgs/megadrive/256.txt
Bubble And Squeak Bubsy in - Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble Caesars Palace Captain America and the Avengers 
/opt/retropie/conifgs/fds/320.txt
Akumajou Dracula Donkey Kong Otocky Super Mario Brothers 2 
You get the jist. It doesn't need an extension, not case sensitive, but should match the ROM name (including punctuation) exactly. This forces them to launch in 2048x240p instead of the default 1920x240p. This gives the end user full control on a game-per-game basis over the horizontal integer. You'll still need to write a retroarch game config to override the defaults there, but this at least gets you the right field. For games with odd/shifting vertical resolutions (like Chrono Cross, Battle Arena Toshinden, Castlevania SotN, etc.), a single pass of snap-shader is applied (snap-basic, nearest neighbor filtering, and "don't care" scale).
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi-RGB v3.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: d9d28f5ae8fe5cc829348be4b5a103fc 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 15 30 42 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 160 202 320 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 137 247 295 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 73 157 204 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v2.0 - A Whole New World!

CRTPi Project Presents:

DEPRECIATED BUILD, SEE VERSION 3.0!

CRTPi-RGB v2.0

A CRTPi image for running 240p via GPIO RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.5.17 (build 32617750 commit 03/21/20)
  • Retroarch 1.8.4
  • 8GB (7892992 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 4658943 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Kodi 18.2 w/ Convergence Theme
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Emulationstation preloaded with PietDAmore's 240p Honey and Bubblegum themes
  • Emulationstation preloaded with KALEL1981's Super-Retroboy theme
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!

DEPRECIATED BUILD, PLEASE SEE VERSION 3.0!

CRTPi-RGB v2.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: f860516358f5c2941de3bc6170234b88 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 180 202 300 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 152 247 280 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 85 157 192 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v2.0: A Whole New World!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi-RGB v2.0

A CRTPi image for 240p via RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.5.17 (build 32617750 commit 03/21/20)
  • Retroarch 1.8.4
  • 8GB (7892992 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 4658943 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Kodi 18.2 w/ Convergence Theme
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Emulationstation preloaded with PietDAmore's 240p Honey and Bubblegum themes
  • Emulationstation preloaded with KALEL1981's Super-Retroboy theme
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi-RGB v2.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: f860516358f5c2941de3bc6170234b88 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 180 202 300 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 152 247 280 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 85 157 192 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

A complete guide of and debunking of audio on Linux, ALSA and Pulse

Hey fellow penguins,
A few days ago, an user asked about audio quality on Linux, and whether it is worse or better than audio on Windows. The thread became a mess quickly, full of misconceptions and urban myths about Linux. I figured it would be worthwhile to create a complete guide to Linux audio, as well as dispelling some myths and misconceptions.
To all be on the same page, this is going to be thorough, slowly introducing more concepts.

What is sound? How and what can I hear?

You might remember from high school that sound is waves traveling through the air. Vibrations of any kind cause molecules in the air to move. When that wave form finds your ears, it causes little hairs in your ear to move. Different hairs are susceptible to different frequencies, and the signals sent by these hairs are turned into sound you hear by your brain.
In reality it is a little more complicated, but for the sake of this post, that's all you need to know.
The pitch of sound comes from its frequency, the 'shorter' the waves are in a waveform, the higher the sound. The volume of sound comes from how 'tall' the waves are. Human hearing sits in a range between 20Hz and 20,000 Hz, though it deviates per person. Being the egocentric species we are, waves below 20 Hz are called 'infrasound' and waves above 20kHz are called 'ultrasound.' Almost no humans can hear beyond ultrasound, you will find that your hearing probably cuts off at 16kHz.
To play around with this, check out this tone generator, you can prove anything above with this yourself. As a fun fact: human hearing is actually really bad, we've among the most limited frequency ranges. A cat can hear up to 40kHz, and dolphins can even hear up to 160kHz!!
FACT: Playing loud music is dangerous! If you listen to music and you are feeling a discomfort, you should turn the volume down. A true alert is when you hear a beep - this is called tinnitus, and that beep you're hearing is pretty much the death cry of the cells that can hear that frequency. That beep is the last time you will hear that very specific frequency ever again. Please, listening to loud music is not worth the permanent hearing damage, please dial it down for your own sake! <3

How does my computer generate sound?

To listen to sound, you will probably be using headphones or speakers, inside of them are cones that are driven by an electromagnet, causing them to vibrate at very precise frequencies. This is essentially how sound works, though modern headphones certainly can be pretty complex.
To drive that magnet, an audio source will send an analog signal (a waveform) over a wire to the driver, causing it to move at the frequency of that waveform. This is in essence how audio playback works; and we're not going to get into it much deeper than this.
Computers are digital - which is to say, they don't do analog; processors understand ON and OFF, they do not understand 38.689138% OFF and 78.21156% ON. When converting an analog signal (like sound) to a digital one, we make use of a format called PCM. For PCM to be turned into an analog signal, you need a DAC - or as you probably know it: a sound card. DAC stands for 'Digital to Analog Converter', or some people mistakenly call it "Digital Audio ConverteChip"
PCM stands for Pulse-code Modulation, which is a way to represent sampled analog signals in a digital format. We're not going to get into it too much here, but imagine taking a sample of a waveform at regular intervals and storing the value, and then rounding that value to a nearest 'step' (remember this). That's PCM.
The fidelity of PCM comes from two elements, which we are going to discuss next: sampling rate and bit depth.

What is sampling rate? Or: HOW SOUND GOOD?

Sampling rate is the most important part of making PCM sound good. Remember how humans hear in a range of 20Hz to 20kHz? The sample rate of audio has a lot to do with this. You cannot capture high frequencies if you do not capture samples often enough. Since our ears can hear up to 20 kHz, you would imagine that 20kHz would be ideal for capturing audio; however, a result of sampling is that you actually need twice the sample rate, this is called the Nyquist-Sannon sampling theorem, which is a complicated thing. Just understand that to reproduce a 20kHz frequency, you need a sample rate of 40kHz.
To have a little bit of room and leeway, we settled on a sample rate of 48kHz (a multiple of 8) for playback, and 96kHz for recording. We record at this frequency only to make sure absolutely no data is lost. You might be more familiar with 44.1kHz for audio, which is a standard we settled on for CD playback and NTSC. A lot of scientific research has been done on sound quality, and there is no evidence to suggest people can tell the difference between 48kHz or anything higher.
MYTH BUST: Humans cannot hear beyond 20 kHz, period. Anyone who claims to be able to is either supernatural or lying to you - I'll let you choose which.

What is bit-depth? Or: HOW IT MAKE SOUND REALLY NICE?

Remember how I told you to remember that PCM rounds values to the nearest step? This has to do with how binary works. The more bits, the bigger the number you can store. In PCM, the bit-depth decides the number of bits of information in each sample. With 16-bit, the range of values that can be stored is 0 to 65535. Going beyond this is pointless for humans, with no scientific research showing any proven benefit, though marketeers would like you to believe there's benefits.
MYTH BUST: 24-bit depth is often touted as 'high-resolution audio', claiming benefits of a better sonic experience. Such is nothing more than marketing speech, there is no meaningful data 24-bit can capture that 16-bit cannot.

Channels? Or: HOW IT CAN MAKE SOUND IN LEFT BUT NOT RIGHT?

We'll briefly touch on the last part of PCM audio, channels. This is very self explanatory, humans have two ears and can hear separate sounds on both of them, which means we have stereo hearing. As a result, most music is recorded with 2 channels. For some surround settings, you need more channels, this is why you may have heard of 5.1 or 7.1; the first digit is the amount of channels the PCM carries.
For most desktop usage, the only sound we care about is 2-channel PCM.

Recap

So, we've covered all the elements of PCM sound. Let's go over it quickly: sample rate is expressed in Hz and is how often a sample of a waveform is captured, representing the x-axis of a waveform. Bit-depth is the bits of information stored in each sample, and represents the y-axis of the waveform. Channels decide how many simultaneous outputs the PCM can drive separately, since we have 2 ears, you need at least two channels.
As a result, the standard audio playback for both consumers and professionals is 48kHz, 16-bit, 2 channel PCM. This is more than enough to fully represent the full range of human hearing.

How it works in Linux

So, now that we know how PCM works, how does Linux make sound? How can you make Linux sound great? A few important components come into play here, and we'll need to discuss each of them in some detail.

ALSA

ALSA is the interface to the kernel's sound driver. ALSA can take a PCM signal and send it to your hardware by talking to the driver. Something important to know about most DACs is that they can only take one signal at a time, actually. That means that only a single application can send sound to ALSA at once. Long ago, in a darker time, you couldn't watch a movie while listening to music!
This problem was solved a long time ago with the use of alsalib, but doing mixing at a library level isn't a very good solution to the problem. This gave rise to sound servers, of which many have existed. Before PulseAudio, esound was a very popular one but had many problems, eventually it was succeeded by PulseAudio.

PulseAudio

When you think audio on Linux, PulseAudio is probably among the first things you think of. PulseAudio is NOT a driver, nor does it talk to your drivers. Actually, PulseAudio only does two things that we'll discuss in detail later. PulseAudio talks to ALSA, taking control of its single audio stream, and allows other applications to talk to PulseAudio instead. Pulse is an 'audio multiplexer', turning multiple signals into one through a process that is called mixing. Mixing is an incredibly complicated subject that we won't talk about here.
To be able to mix sounds, one must make sure that all the PCM sources are in the same format (the one that's being sent to ALSA); if the PCM format being sent to Pulse does not match the PCM format being sent to ALSA, pulse does a step before mixing it called resampling. Resampling is another very complicated subject that can turn a 8kHz, 4-bit, 1-channel PCM stream into a 24kHz, 24-bit, 2-channel PCM stream.
These two things allow you to play a game, listen to music and watch YouTube, and notifications to produce a sound all at the same time. PulseAudio is the most critical element of the Linux sound stack.
FACT: PulseAudio is a contentious subject, many people have a dislike for this particular bit of software. In all honesty, PulseAudio was brought to the general public in a bit of a premature state, breaking audio for many people. PulseAudio these days is a very stable, solid piece of software. If you have audio issues these days, it's usually a problem in ALSA or your driver.

What about JACK and PipeWire?

PulseAudio isn't the only sound servedaemon available for Linux, though it is certainly the most popular and most likely the default of whatever distribution you are using. PulseAudio has become a bit of a standard for Linux sound and has by far the best compatibility with most applications, but that doesn't mean there aren't alternatives.
JACK (JACK Audio Connection Kit, a recursive acronym like GNU) is a sound server focused primarily on low latency. If you are doing professional audio work on Linux, you will already be very familiar with JACK. JACK's development is very focused on low latency, real-time audio and is critical for such people. JACK is available on most distros as an alternative, and you can try it for yourself if you so want; but you might find some applications do not work nicely with JACK.
PipeWire is a project that is currently in development, looking to solve key problems that exist in current sound servers. PipeWire isn't just a sound server but also handles the multiplexing of video sources (like a camera). Special attention has been put into working with sandboxed applications (like Flatpaks), which is an area where PulseAudio is lacking. PipeWire is a very promising project that might very well succeed PulseAudio in the future and you should expect to see appearing in distribution repositories very soon. You can try it yourself right now, though it isn't quite as easy to get started with as JACK is.
More audio servers exist, but are beyond the scope of this post.

What is resampling?

Resampling is the process of turning a PCM stream into another PCM stream of a different resolution. Your DAC only accepts a limited range of PCM signals, and it is up to the software to make sure the PCM stream is compatible. There is almost no DAC out there that doesn't support 44.1kHz, 16-bit, 2-channel PCM, so this tends to be the default. When you play an audio source (like an OggVorbis file), the PCM stream might be 96kHz, 24-bit, 2-channel PCM.
To fix that, PulseAudio will use a resampling algorithm. There are two kinds of resampling methods: upsampling and downsampling. Upsamling is lossless, since you can always represent less data with more data. Downsampling is lossy by definition, you cannot represent 24-bit PCM with 16-bit PCM.
MYTH: Downsampling is a loss in quality! This is only true in a technical sense, or if you are downsampling to less than 48kHz, 16-bit PCM. When you downsample a 96kHz, 24-bit PCM stream to a 48kHz, 16-bit stream, no meaningful data is lost in the process; because the discarded data lies outside of the human ear's hearing range.
FACT: Resampling is expensive. Good quality resampling algorithms actually take a non-trivial amount of processing power. PulseAudio defaults to a resampling method with a good balance between CPU time used and quality.

What is mixing?

Mixing is the process of taking two PCM streams and combining them into one. This is extremely complicated and not something we're going to discuss at length. It is not important to understand how this works, only to understand that it exists. Without mixing, you wouldn't be able to hear sounds from multiple sources. This is true not just for PulseAudio and computer sound, this is true for anything. In real life, you might use an A/V receiver to accept sound from your TV and music player at once, the receiver then mixes the signals and plays it through your speakers.

What is encoding?

Finally we can talk a little about encoding. Encoding is the process of taking a PCM stream and writing it to a permanent format, two types exist. You have lossy encoding and lossless encoding. Lossy encoding removes data from the PCM stream to safe space. Usually the discarded data is useless to you, and will not make a difference in sound quality; examples of lossy encoding are MP3, AAC and Ogg Vorbis. Lossless encoding takes a PCM stream and encodes it in such a way that no data is lost, examples of lossless encodings are FLAC, ALAC and WAV.
Note that lossy and lossless do not mean compressed and uncompressed. A lossless format can be compressed and usually is, as uncompressed lossless encoding would be very large; it would just be the raw PCM stream. An example of lossless uncompressed audio is WAV.
A new element encodings bring is their bit rate, not to be confused with samplerate and bit depth. Bit rate has to do with how much data is stored in every second of audio. For a lossless, uncompressed PCM stream this is easy to calculate with the formula bit rate = sample rate * bit depth * channels, for 16-bit, 48kHz, 2 channel PCM this is 1,5 Mbit. To get the value in bytes, divide by 8, thus 192kB per second.
The bit rate of an encoder means how much the audio will be compressed. PCM compression is super complicated, but it generally involves discarding silence, cutting off frequencies you cannot hear, and so forth. Radio encoding has a bit rate of roughly 128 Kbps, while most CDs have a bit rate of 1360kbps.
Lastly, there is the concept of VBR and CBR. VBR stands for Variable Bit Rate, which CBR stands for Constant Bit Rate. In a VBR encoding, the encoder aim for a target bit rate that you set, but it can deviate if it thinks it needs more or less. CBR will encode a constant bit rate, and will never deviate.
MYTH: Lossless sounds better than lossy. This is blatantly untrue, lossless audio formats were created for perservation and archival reasons. When you encode a lossy file from a lossless source, and you make sure that it's a 48kHz, 16-bit PCM encoding, you will not lose any important information. What is enough depends on the quality of the encoder. For OggVorbis, 192kbps is sufficient, for MP3, 256kbps should be preferred. 320kbps is excessive and the highest quality supported by MP3. In general, 256kbps does the trick, but with storage being abundant these days, you can play it safe and use 320kbps if it makes you feel better.
MYTH: CBR is better than VBR. There is no reason not to use VBR at all, there is no point in writing 256Kbps of data if there is only silence or a constant tone. Let your encoder do what it does best!
FACT: Encoding a lossy format to another lossy format will result in a loss of data! You will compress data that is already compressed, which is really bad. When encoding to a lossy format, always use a high quality recording in a lossless format as the source!
I DON'T BELIEVE YOU: This article from the guys Xiph (the people who brought you FLAC and Ogg Vorbis) explain it better than I can: https://people.xiph.org/%7Exiphmont/demo/neil-young.html

TL;DR, I JUST WANT THE BEST SOUND QUALITY

Here is a quick guide to achieving great sound quality on Linux with the above in mind.
As you can see, there's little you can do in Linux in the first place, so what can you do if you want better sound?
MYTH: Linux sound quality is worse than Windows. They are exactly the same, Pulse doesn't work that different from how Windows does mixing and resampling.
MYTH: Linux sound quality can be better than Windows. They are exactly the same. All improvements in quality come from the driver and your DAC, not the sound server. Pulse and ALSA do not touch the PCM beyond moving it around and resampling it.
I hope this (long) guide was of help to you, and helped to dispell some myths. Did I miss anything? Ask or let me know, and I'll answer the best I can. Did I make any factual errors? Please correct me with a source and I'll amend the post immediately.
submitted by _Spell_ to linux [link] [comments]

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